The art features of Pavlovo Posad style

Pavlovo shawls of 1860-1870s stylistically differed little from the shawls of Moscow manufactories, which were mostly decorated with the so-called Turkish pattern going back to woven oriental shawls. This pattern is most typical for Russian woven and printed shawls of the first half of the 19th century. It uses certain ornamental motifs in the form of a "bean" or "cucumber", geometrized plant forms. Throughout the 19th century, interest in the Oriental art was quite stable in Russia. Although some researchers mistakenly attribute a purely floral ornamentation to Pavlovo shawls, Pavlovo shawls with the Turkish pattern were also quite varied.

Later, shawls with Turkish patterns were also included in the range of the Pavlovo Posad shawl factory, although they were produced on a lesser scale than shawls with floral ornaments. The decoration line of shawls and scarves with floral motifs was actively developing in the 1870s. The image of flowers can be found on woven silk and printed cotton shawls made in the first half of the 19th century at other Russian factories. Labzin’s shawls were the first to feature this decor in such a big way and so diversely.

In the second half of the 19th century, representation of flowers in a somewhat naturalistic interpretation was very fashionable. Probably, it was caused by the romanticist tendencies of human connection with living nature typical for the whole era of historicism. Preference for floral motifs was given in embroidery, lace, fabrics. Porcelain, Zhostovo trays were decorated with bouquets, their images started appearing in the interior murals. So, desire of Pavlovo craftsmen to make a fashionable product that will be in demand among buyers was seen in the decoration of shawls with flowers.

Shawl patterns of 1870 - 1880s were very diverse and bespoke high professionalism of the artists of the factory. The compositions of kerchiefs of those years were magnificent, solemn, or, on the contrary, light and graceful. Ornamental motifs of styles from previous eras were used in their decor, along with floral patterns: stylized branches, curls, figurative vases, scalloped ribbons in complex turns. When impicturing flowers, preference was given to garden flowers, primarily roses and dahlias.

In 1871, the factory workshop already employed 7 draftsmen: Stepan Vasilyevich Postigov, Ivan Ivanovich Ivanov, Mikhail Ilyich Sudyin (Sudin), Akim Vasilyev, Pavel Nezhavkin, Boris Efremovich Krasilnikov, Zakhar Andreevich Prokhanov. By the end of the century, their number reached eleven. The work of artists was highly appreciated: the salary of Stepan Postigov, the highest-paid worker, was 45 rubles at that time, which was almost 2 times higher than the salary of a carver and several times higher than the salary of workers of other specialties.

In order to make the range of shawls more diverse, their patterns and the so-called "model handkerchiefs" of other manufactories were bought from Moscow artists. Reproduced images of various colors made by French and German artists were also acquired for use by their drafters. End the of 19th - beginning of the 20th century may be regarded as the time of final additions to the Pavlovo kerchief style. Shawls of two types were especially popular these years. The first included shawls made from thin translucent wool with or without silk warping. The pattern of such shawls was made on cream or colored fields, most often black or red. Ornament included a voluminous image of flowers collected in bouquets, garlands or scattered on the field of a handkerchief. Sometimes the flowers were supplemented with thin ornamental strips or small elements of stylized plant forms.

A distinctive feature of the Pavlovo kerchiefs was impeccable harmony in the selection of color combinations and individual decor elements. It is no accident that in 1896 the enterprise received the highest award of the industrial exhibition in Nizhny Novgorod: the right to display the State Emblem on signboards and labels.

The second Pavlovo shawl type, formed at that time, included shawls made from dense woolen fabric. They are distinguished by the nature of the printing, color scheme built on a combination of a several bright colors with a predominance of red, and, of course, the pattern. Bouquets of flowers on such scarves, as a rule, are enclosed in various medallion forms from elongated "cucumbers" or tactfully supplemented with geometric figures inscribed from ornamental bands or flower garlands in the shawl composition. Compositional emphasis is placed on the kerchief corner, the pattern fills almost the entire surface of the fabric, leaving a small figure of the centerpiece free in the center.

From the mid-1920s, traditional floral patterns received a slightly different interpretation. In these years, flower forms became larger, at times gaining an almost perceivable volume. Coloring of the kerchiefs was based on bright contrasting combinations of red, green, blue and yellow colors.

Patterns made in the post-war period were characterized by decorative intensity, a more dense arrangement of floral patterns. The color and composition of the pattern with complex light and shadow developments matched the general trend in the development of applied arts of those years. In the last decade, work to restore the patterns of old Pavlovo shawls has been underway. Creation of new patterns is conducted in two directions.

Along with the development of the classical line, new, modern patterns appeared, taking into account the European trends in the shawl development. In accordance with the fashion and style of that time, the color structure of the products changes. The color gamut is built on a harmonious combination of closely approximated tones with predominance of beige, ochreous, brown and greenish shades.